Are you just starting out, or still worm composting by trial-and-error? Either way, you may still have some lingering questions. Like, for one, what’s up with worm bedding? And two, what do I have to do with it?
Great questions like these, from readers like you, shaped the focus for this month’s article. Well worth your time to ask and understand, here we’ll explain it all. Hang tight, and in just a few minutes you’ll be a confident connoisseur of worm compost substrate!
Better Bedding on the Cheap
When my worm composting adventures began, I was split on how to create the ideal living conditions for my herd. I was ready to go full-tilt with high-tech warmers, insulation, a designated food processor, pre-purchased food and bedding materials, and of course, only the best worm habitats
But then I didn’t.
The more reasonable part of me decided to enjoy the natural simplicity of it and keep it rustic rather than chic. I had to remember that compost worms could still live large on bedding that doesn’t cost a thing.
Recycling waste to create natural fertilizer is pretty much the name of the game in worm composting. And using trash to make worm bedding is so crazy easy, it’s a total win-win. Anyone can feed their worms and give them a healthy habitat no matter how much space or money you have.
As long as you have a paper shredder, a hot compost pile, and a reverse osmosis water filter, you’ll be fine. I’m kidding! You just need trash, garbage, junk, leftovers, and scraps to make the very best all-purpose bedding.
That’s right, DIY, all-purpose worm bedding, for free!
What is Worm Bedding?
To put it simply, worm bedding is the bulky mixture of mostly brown materials we add to the worm bin.
A mixed variety of carbon-based materials makes the most ideal bedding for your worms. The best materials work because of these characteristics:
- absorb, retain, and drain moisture
- allow oxygen flow
- pH neutral
- free from things that can damage the worms’ sensitive skin
- nontoxic and chemical-free
Materials to add to your worm compost for bedding are nearly as vast as your imagination. Consider all of your free and low-cost resources. From junk mail to yard waste, these are just some of the excellent options available:
- Brown cardboard (torn into small pieces)
- Paper (rinsed if bleached, shredded)
- Newspaper (not glossy, shredded)
- Finished compost
- Grass clippings
- Aged horse or cow manure
- Old natural-fiber clothing
- Coco coir or coco fiber
- Straw and hay
- Fall leaves and other yard waste (shredded)
- Wood chips
So, is worm bedding food?
When worm composting hobbyists talk about feeding our worms, we generally aren’t referring to serving up some fresh bedding. We mean actual food scraps instead.
Yet, our worms spend their entire lives in their bedding reproducing, pooping, growing, and yes, eating it too. Nearly 50% of their daily diet may consist of bedding. Thus, over time, all that brown material is consumed and transformed into black gold.
DID YOU KNOW?
Overwintered worms often consume or re-consume the bedding and compost that they are in. Worms stay healthy even living off moistened cardboard and shredded newspaper!
The Functions of Worm Bedding
It really can’t be overstated; bedding is everything in the worm bin. Dare I say, bedding is a worm’s whole world!? Aside from being the space in which they reside, bedding provides all that the worms need to do what they do best.
- Helps retain and maintain consistent temperatures
- Provides moisture for oxygen exchange
- Offers a steady source of nutrients
- Allows for air gaps and passageways
- Keeps cocoons moist during incubation
- Absorbs and drains away excess moisture
- Protects worms from environmental conditions and predators
How to Make and Maintain Bedding
Now that you see how important the quality of your worms’ bedding is, let’s make sure you’ve got the recipe to make it yourself! Made from home you can be sure everything you offer your worms is safe, free of chemicals and other toxins.
Ultimately, worm bedding is what transforms into the rich, natural fertilizer we love. But sometimes the growing worms process everything so rapidly that it seems your bedding disappears before you know it.
What happens then? Simple. You add more.
Compost Worm Bedding Mix
- Use a large tote or bucket
- Shred as many different dry bedding materials as you can
- Mix to combine
- Add unchlorinated water (let tap water sit out overnight to dechlorinate ahead of time)
- Mix and to allow bedding to absorb and redistribute water
- Test for moisture and pH using a 2-in1 instant-read probe meter
- Gently fluff using a compost turning claw
- Add a 2” layer of new bedding any time it’s getting low, or when starting a new tray
How to Test and Treat Bedding
I’m sure you’d agree, bedding in the worm bin accumulates rather quickly. A batch may even go from brand new to finished in just 3 months if conditions are kept just right!
To keep your bedding in prime condition you need to give it a little check every now and again. Fortunately, there are only 3 criteria you need to hit the mark:
- Temperature (55-77F)
- Moisture (high 70-90%)
- PH (neutral 7)
To take the temperature, you can use a soil or compost thermometer. That’s a simple probe with clear markings that show if your bedding is within a safe range or not.
Make sure your bin is kept out of direct sunlight, year-round, and insulated to keep warm through the cold months. There are lots of ways to adjust for temperature if necessary. To cool quickly, it’s safe to run water through your system every once in a while. To warm, use a heating mat or even Christmas lights to raise the temperature.
To maintain that high humidity, feed worms high moisture foods, lay moist newspaper over the top of the compost to reduce evaporation, and add water when needed. If too much water is an issue, make sure adequate drainage holes are present and kept clear. Add shredded paper to absorb the excess.
Regularly maintain pH by buffering bedding with a healthy dose of pulverized eggshells in their feedings. Coffee grounds and peat moss will create a more acidic bedding, while lime and calcium work the opposite way – toward neutral and higher pHs.
Last but not least, make sure to harvest your worm compost at least twice each year. This avoids harmful salt build-up. And it gives your worms a jump on boosting reproduction each time!
Now You’re Ready for Bed
And there you have it. Those are the basics of vermicomposting bedding care. Now you have all you need to gather up the materials your worms need for comfy cozy bedding all year long. Not only that, but with the simple compost thermometer and multifunction probe tool, your temperature, pH, and moisture levels will always be on point.
For more basics and even some extra tips and tricks, sign up now to receive The Squirm Firm Newsletter and Blog. Once each month we’ll share something new and exciting for you to discover the wonderful world of worm composting.
If I’ve left anything out or you’d like to share your creative methods, please add your comments below. You never know, your questions may end up being the focus of next month’s article!